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List of S3C partner projects

The research that led tot the construction of this toolkit has partly been based upon the analysis of 32 smart grid projects in different European countries that were used as case studies. Below you can find a list with these projects and a short description.  

3e-Houses (DE/ES/UK)

3e-HOUSES project deals with the integration of the most established ICT technologies in social housing in order to provide an innovative service for energy efficiency. Two pilots and two replicator projects in three different countries were evaluated. 

AlpEnergy (DE)

This project includes residential, commercial and agricultural customers in southern of Germany. It was aimed at seeing how price incentives and improved information could adapt consumption to local generation. Makes use of a Virtual Power System. Strong end user involvement. Two tariff structures, several feedback options, manual and automatic components. Strong regional ties. SMEs: theoretical study into their load shifting potential. 

BeAware (FI/IT/SE)

Two trials with 8 (Finland and Italy) and 12 families (Finland, Italy and Sweden). Goal is to reduce power consumption by 15% with the use of an online game for smartphones (1 iPhone per household as incentive) and a flashlight that projects real time consumption on the wall (second trial only). 


Very big project with many households and businesses in rural and urban north east England and Yorkshire. Focusses on flexibility of grid, and (used for case study) end user profiles and flexibility of consumers. In total 23 trials/test sites were set up.

EcoGrid (DK)

Different types of participants (both households and commercial) on rural Bornholm island, Denmark were included in this project with as goal to see how people react to smart meters.

E-mobility  (SI)

In the Gorenjska region in Slovenia electric transport was linked to tourism by the installation of charging stations in five communities in the region such that a journey between them can be made. 

EnergiUdsigten (DK)

Project in the south and south western part of Jutland, Denmark involving 383 households. It focusses on the flexibility of energy use. Webpage displays energy spot market prices. Users with spot price contract received the SEE1, an ambient display that shows relative energy price.

Energy@Home (IT)

50 households (15 with pv) in urban Ancona or other cities in northern Italy received full smart grid set (5 plugs, smart washing machine, home gateway and display). Aimed at making participating in smart grid systems easier for consumers and creating a valid business case for the equipment. 

eueco (DE)

In rural south east of Germany the company eueco supports and facilitates the set-up of bottom-up approaches for a local sustainable energy system. Currently two cooperatives have been set up. The idea behind eueco is that people have to become active partners through financial participation. More than 1000 residential end users from the region are already participating. 

Hus 14: OfficeWise (SE)

At the office of SP three different prototypes for energy consumption visualisation were developed, a PC application, a ceiling-hung chandelier of which the height indicated the level of current consumption, and an accompanying display with more detailed consumption information. The goal of the project is to minimise the wast energy (e.g. when nobody is present in a room) in the office. 

Improsume (DK)

Project in Aarhus, Denmark, where prosumers are active participants in the energy market. Focus on the heating system. 

InovCity (PT)

The whole city of Évora in Portugal was equipped with smart meters. Different products and services were tested on a group of 1200 domestic customers, such as three different tariff structures and different types of energy management systems. A smaller group of 50 customers were part of a co-creation work group for designing new products and services. 

Jouw Energie Moment (NL)

In three neighbourhoods two cities in the Netherlands households use a smart meter, IHD and a smart washing machine to reduce and shift their energy demand. Feedback is received in the light of maximum sustainability or minimum costs. 


In this project a prototype system for automatic control of industrial loads was developed. There is a very strong focus on the technical side of demand side management.  

Linear (BE)

Households in Flanders were recruited to participate in this smart grid project. The project aims at developing required technical solutions, and looks at possible future energy market structures and business cases. There were three project phases in which four different business cases were tested; the end user was only aware of the option to either provide flexibility or to make use of a ToU tariff. The starting point of the project was not the end user perspective, but instead the stakeholders involved were interested in the question of how to get 'flexibility' from end users.


Customers were added stepwise to the pilot, such that in the last three months 700 households in Mannheim, Germany, participated. They tested a dynamic pricing tariff. The control group received smart meters only. But the test group was also equipped with a HEMS that could control the use of household appliances automatically (EnergieButler). Via an app for tablets and PCs (MOMA app) they could access a web portal with consumption and price diagrams. In addition, some households received monthly informative bills. 


Participants in this project have to manually enter their metering data on the website, where Oscar the bear teaches them about their own consumption and energy saving in a playful manner. It is organised by an energy supply company in Switzerland and 24,000 (8%) of their customers are registered users. Aim of the project was to become acquainted with their private customers on a personal level and to find a cost-effective solution for offering energy efficiency consultation.


This project had as goal to develop and test a new app/IHD called the FORE-watch and to research its influence on end users' consumption behaviour. Goal of this is not to reduce consumption, but rather shift it to increase the reliability of the local grid or fit the production of locally generated renewable energy. 

PowerMatching City (NL)

This project is the successor of PMC I, which involved 20 houses. For this project another 20 houses from one specific street were involved. Two prototypes of energy services were created: "Together More Sustainable" and "Smart Cost Reduction". The participants all have an IHD (the "Energy Monitor"), a thermostat with microCHP or heat pump, a smart washing machine and make use of a dynamic tariff. The goal is to see if these energy services can relief pressure on the grid and deliver added value to end users and eventually aims for.


The community in the village Lambesc (PACA region) in France was included in this smart energy project that involved 9 "families of experiments" with industry, households (both residential and apartments), commercial users and also involved public lighting and a biogas storage facility. Goal was to maximise the potential of locally generated electricity, demand response and local storage in order to shave peaks (and thus contributing to grid management).

Promoting Energy Efficiency in Households (LV)

The goal of this project is to evaluate whether feedback in the form of a web portal and energy efficiency advice have an impact on the consumption patterns of residential end users. There is also an in-house monitoring kit (an IHD) that can be purchased by the participants; only 35 of 500 did. 

REloadIT (NL)

The municipality has bought electric cars for its employees to use and charges them automatically with a programme that prioritises the use of electricity from the municipalities three solar panel installations and a virtual wind turbine. Employees can reserve the cars online through a web portal and are guaranteed that they will be charged sufficiently for the planned trip. The idea behind this project is that the smart grid should make things easier for the end user, not to engage them actively in sustainable behaviour. 

Sala-Heby Energi (SE)

Introduction of a ToU tariff in the region after the national roll-out of smart meters. Implementation was done step-wise between 2003 and 2009 - participation is mandatory. Focus more on shifting consumption than reducing consumption.

Salzburg SME DR study (AT)

Goals is to analyse potentials for load shifting in SMEs, municipal buildings and utility service providers in the Salzburg area. To this end a literature study was done, followed by a survey of 21 SMEs in Salzburg. On the basis of this recommendations for the energy economy and on framework requirements was done. There was strong end user involvement in the writing of these, but no active pilot. 

Rendement voor Iedereen (NL)

Residential smart grid project with 100 households (each) in two cities in the Netherlands. The goal is to co-create and test eight service concepts for improving energy efficiency and facilitating flexibility in households that have potentially viable business cases. Through the community AmersVolt people are activated to search for a solution themselves.

Smart Home (SI)

Residential end users in Ljubljana testing smart home innovative solutions in real-life situations. They were all friendly users; personal contacts and relatives of employees. The goal of the project was to limit consumers peak demand in order to improve the use of the electricity grid. Focus was not on the technology - existing equipment was purchased and used. 

Smart Metering Projekt (DE)

In three places in Germany two field tests were run in order to see whether smart meters would increase energy efficiency with residential households. 

Stockholm Royal Seaport (SE)

In a district in Stockholm smart and sustainable active apartments will be built. Currently one such apartment is finished and serves as a pilot for testing the smart appliances, new tariffs and feedback systems.

Texel Cloud Power (NL)

300 households on a small island close to the Dutch coast will be participating in a smart grid project that aims to work towards making the island's electricity supply fully domestic and renewable. 

To Follow the Electricity Price (SE)

In Gothenburg it was tested whether it would be useful to introduce demand response programmes by comparing direct (DC) and indirect control (IC) of electricity use in two different groups. In the DC group, the systems had a remote control over the waterborne electric heating. In the IC group the households were informed about an hourly spot price. 

ToU Tariff in Italy (IT)

This case study is the monitoring of 28,000 households that fall within a mandatory ToU tariff that was introduced in Italy on residential end users. This sample is statistically representative of the Italian population. 

UppSol 2020 (SE)

Series of three workshops are organised for five different stakeholder groups (e.g. housing associations, municipalities, property owners, farmers, and companies) about PV installations such that the rate of installation will increase in Uppsala region, Sweden. In each test bed the experiences of a frontrunner with his PV installation will be followed.